OOCL christens the last in latest series of ‘G-Class’ containerships



OOCL is proud to announce that the sixth and last in our latest series of 21,413 TEU containerships was christened at a ceremony held at the Samsung Heavy Industries (SHI) shipyard on Geoje island today.


Named by our Sponsors Mrs. Shirley Peng and Mrs. Mary Liu as the OOCL Indonesia, she will begin her maiden voyage this month and join her other five sister vessels on OOCL’s Asia-North Europe Loop 1 (LL1) trade lane to form a formidable team in our fleet.


Over the years, the strength and competitiveness of OOCL’s fleet plays a very important role in the company’s business performance. We are very appreciative of our long-standing partnership with SHI and for their excellent support in completing our series of six 'G Class' containerships within a year’s time so that they can be deployed in our fleet when we needed them most.


“The flexibility provided in our newbuilding program is one of the crucial elements to how we can better manage our fleet and operations in such a dynamic and challenging industry,” said Mr. Andy Tung, Chief Executive of OOCL, at the ceremony when thanking the shipyard for their dedication and support.  “Not only was the time factor a challenge, but the actual engineering feat in building the world’s largest containerships for the first time within the given period while incorporating the best and latest innovation and technologies is a monumental project not to be underestimated.”


OOCL's partnership with SHI began in 1995 when we built the first 4,960 TEU containership, named OOCL Hong Kong, at the shipyard.  In the following years, we collaborated on more than fifty newbuilding projects, all of which were very successful as each vessel was constructed at the highest quality.  Along the way, we also made history together by building the OOCL Shenzhen (at 8,063 TEU) in 2003 and the OOCL Hong Kong (at 21,413 TEU) last year that broke record titles as the world’s largest containership by carrying capacity.


OOCL Shenzhen


OOCL Hong Kong


In his ceremonial address, Mr. Tung expressed that the celebration also marked a wonderful start to the new year in 2018 as the industry is seeing a much healthier global economic environment not seen in many years since the 2009 financial crisis, and that various governments around the world are continuing to fuel the growth momentum with policy agendas to boost trade and economic cooperation.


“In addition to China’s leadership in the One Belt One Road Initiative to help bring markets closer together and opening new opportunities for trade, another policy agenda closer to home is the signing of the Hong Kong-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement just last November,” said Mr. Tung.  


“Once ratified, the new FTA arrangements will not only open opportunities for trade growth, but also facilitate more effective and efficient trade links through the elimination of import duties and streamlining of regulations that would inevitably help improve supply chain flow over the long run.  In our industry, speed is of essence and we are very excited to see these kinds of policy directions pushing forward.”


OOCL Indonesia at sea trial


Xiamen / Yantian / Singapore / via Suez Canal / Felixstowe / Rotterdam / Gdansk / Wilhelmshaven / Felixstowe / via Suez Canal / Singapore / Yantian / Shanghai in a 77-day round trip.


Posted by 뜨락 뜨락(Countrylife4u)

Part-Load Optimisation Tuning Method Proves Popular

Part-load optimisation delivers significant fuel savings for MAN auxiliary engines


MAN Diesel & Turbo has announced that its Part-Load Optimisation initiative has rounded 180 orders since its introduction. Part-Load Optimisation is a tuning method that optimises fuel-oil consumption during the part-load operation of four-stroke, small-bore MAN auxiliary engines.


Finn Fjeldhøj – Head of Small-Bore, Four-Stroke Engineering – MAN Diesel & Turbo, said: “Part-Load Optimisation works on the principle that fuel consumption is reduced at low and part load at the expense of a higher fuel consumption in the high-load range, without exceeding the IMO NOx limit. We can deliver new engines pre-optimised, or retrofit as necessary. Both Part-Load Optimisation solutions have proved popular with the market to date, as evidenced by this strong demand.”


Part-Load Optimisation helps shipowners to maintain their auxiliary engines in good working order while reducing fuel-oil costs. It is recommended for GenSets that often run at part-loads below 75% MCR (especially the load range from approximately 40 - 65% MCR) and optimises engine performance at 60 - 65% MCR.


It is available for all new Holeby engines and can be retrofitted on all existing engines. The tailor-made retrofit kits cover all components, qualified service fitters and calculations of cost benefit; engine tuning can be executed with a charge-air blow-off valve or waste gate.


Part-Load Optimisation delivers fuel-oil savings of, typically, up to 5 g/kWh depending on engine type and load point, and improves the condition of key engine components due to its superior combustion process.


The same, relative fuel-consumption savings also apply when applied in combination with an SCR-system for IMO Tier III compliance.



References: Since its introduction, Part-Load Optimisation has won favour across a broad spectrum of shipping applications, especially medium- and long-range tankers, and feeder container vessels. The MAN L23/30H GenSet has proved a popular candidate for Part-Load Optimisation, typically @ 65% MCR using the charge-air blow-off valve tuning method.


 

Posted by 뜨락 뜨락(Countrylife4u)

독일 국제 와이어 튜브 전시회 ‘wire/Tube 2018’ 는 4월 16~20일 독일 뒤셀도르프개최


독일 국제 와이어 튜브 전시회 ‘wire/Tube 2018’이 오는 4월 16~20일 독일 뒤셀도르프에서 개최된다. 2년 주기로 개최되는 독일 와이어 및 튜브 전시회는 각각 1986년, 1988년 개최된 이후 30여 년간 꾸준히 성장하여 현재는 참가사 2,700여 개, 방문객 70,000여 명, 전시 면적 113,000여 제곱미터의 규모를 자랑하고 있다.

wire/Tube 전시회에서는 와이어 제조 및 마감, 공정 자동화, 계측 제어 엔지니어링, 케이블 기술, 튜브 제조 및 가공, 원재료, 파이프라인, OCTG 기술, 프로파일, 재활용 기계 및 플라스틱 튜브 등 와이어 튜브 산업의 전 영역을 다룬다. 이와 함께 wire/Tube 2018에서는 인더스트리 4.0과 관련된 다양한 기술 혁신도 살펴볼 수 있을 것으로 보인다.



모든 산업의 기초가 되는 와이어 튜브 산업

세계적으로 기술 패러다임이 급변하고 있지만 와이어 튜브 산업은 어떠한 산업에서도 필수 요소로 기능한다. 자동차의 경우, 엔진에서 전기 모터로 구동 방식이 변화하면서 실린더 헤드 볼트나 밸브 스프링 등의 부품 사용은 줄었으나 전기접점, 전기회로, 커넥터 등의 수요는 늘어나고 있다. 에너지 산업의 경우도 자원 활용의 효율을 높이기 위해서는 튜브 산업의 발전이 필수적이다. 업계 전문가들은 “동남아시아, 남미 및 아프리카 일부 국가에서 인프라 확충을 비롯한 건설 및 자동차 산업이 크게 성장함에 따라 와이어 튜브 산업이 앞으로도 기술 발전에 주도적인 역할을 할 것”이라고 말한다.


성과 높은 비즈니스 플랫폼, wire/Tube

독일 wire/Tube 전시회는 비즈니스 성과가 높은 것이 특징이다. 전시회 주최측에서 진행한 wire/Tube 2016 설문조사에 따르면, 방문객 중 98.5%가 전시회에 대해 만족한다고 답했으며, 66%가 신규 파트너를 찾은 것으로 나온다. 이와 같은 결과가 가능한 이유는 방문객의 88%가 구매 결정에 직간접적인 영향을 미칠 수 있는 직급의 사람들이기 때문이다. 따라서 좋은 기술력을 바탕으로 전시회에서의 다양한 기회를 잘 활용한다면 더욱 높은 성과를 낼 수 있다는 게 전시회 관계자의 설명이다.


활성화된 국내 와이어 튜브 시장

현재까지 국내에서 참가 등록한 업체는 wire 22개사, Tube 25개사로 총 47개사이다. 참가 등록은 현재도 진행되고 있어 실제 참가사 수는 소폭 증가할 것으로 보인다. wire/Tube 2018에 참가하는 업체로는 한화케미칼을 비롯해 글로벌 시장에서 활발한 활동을 펼치고 있는 효동기계공업, 고려제강, 성원파이프 등이 있다. 독일 wire/Tube 전시회의 경우 한국 업체의 참가사 수는 수년째 높은 수준으로 유지되고 있다. 프리드리히 케러(Friedrich-Georg Kehrer) wire/Tube 총괄이사는 타언론과의 인터뷰에서 wire/Tube 전시회에 가장 많은 업체가 참가하는 국가로 미국, 인도, 중국 등과 더불어 한국을 꼽기도 했는데, 이는 한국의 시장 규모에 비해 와이어 튜브 산업이 매우 활성화되어 있다는 점을 잘 보여준다.


현재 wire/Tube 전시회는 한국 업체들의 많은 참여로 업계 관계자들의 이목이 쏠리고 있다. wire/Tube 관련 정보는 홈페이지(wire.de, tube.de)를 확인하거나 한국대표부인 라인메쎄㈜ (02-798-4104)로 연락하면 된다.


wire/Tube 한국대표부 라인메쎄㈜

Tel: 02-798-4104

Fax: 02-798-4383

E-mail: info@rmesse.co.kr

Web: www.rmesse.co.kr



Posted by 뜨락 뜨락(Countrylife4u)

Bahri Dry Bulk Secures SAR 360 Mn Financing From Bank Albilad To Purchase Four New Bulk Carriers


Bahri Dry Bulk, a business unit of global transportation and logistics leader Bahri, has announced that it has secured a Sharia-compliant funding of SAR 360 million from Bank Albilad, one of the fast-growing banks in Saudi Arabia, to finance the purchase of four new bulk carriers as part of an agreement signed by the company‎ in 2017 with Hyundai Mipo Dockyard (HMD), a member of Hyundai Heavy Industries (HHI) Group, the world’s largest shipbuilding company based in South Korea. 

New vessels being built by Hyundai Mipo Dockyard will be used to cater to the growing demand for the import of essential grains into Saudi Arabia


The credit facility, which will be paid over six months, and has a tenure of 13 years including a three-year grace period, will be used to finance 80% of the agreement concluded on 27 August last year. The company has provided all the necessary guarantees for obtaining the loan, including a pledge of the four carriers upon delivery from the shipbuilding yard. 


“We are pleased to collaborate with Bank Albilad to obtain this Sharia-compliant credit facility for purchasing the four carriers, which we signed in the fourth quarter of 2017 with Hyundai Heavy Industries (HHI) Group, to enable us to cater to the growing demand for the import of essential grains into KSA,” said Ali Al-Harbi, CFO of Bahri. 


“It also makes us proud that the financing deal with Bank Albilad, which is known for its initiatives to support the Kingdom’s business development and economic growth, contributes toward the concerted efforts made by different sectors in the country to help meet its wide-ranging needs and further cement its pre-eminent position as a global economic powerhouse,” added Al-Harbi. 


For his part, Nezar Banabeela, President of Bahri Dry Bulk, said, “The new funding from Bank Albilad is a major milestone for Bahri Dry Bulk as we are keen on expanding our business into new markets in the region and globally, to explore new horizons of growth and play a key role in supporting the Kingdom in achieving the national goals and strategic directions of the government. Moreover, with the addition of four new carriers to our fleet, we will be fully equipped to cater to the increasing demand for essential grains, such as barley, wheat, and corn, in the country.” 


Established in 2010 as a 60/40 joint venture between Bahri and Arabian Agricultural Services Company (ARASCO), Bahri Dry Bulk is a leading bulk carrier in Saudi Arabia specializing in the transportation of grain, coal and other dry bulk cargoes. The company currently owns and operates a state-of-the-art, large capacity, fuel-efficient fleet of five dry bulk vessels. 



Posted by 뜨락 뜨락(Countrylife4u)

Crowley Announces Plans to Build New 100,000-Barrel Alaska Class ATB to Enhance Alaska Fuel Services



Crowley Fuels LLC announced today that it has signed a construction contract with Bollinger Shipyards to build a new Alaska Class 100,000-barrel-capacity articulated tug-barge (ATB) to transport multiple clean petroleum products in the Alaska market.


The Alaska-class vessel will be built at Bollinger Marine Fabricators Shipyard, in Amelia, La., with an expected delivery scheduled for the fourth quarter of 2019. The contract with Bollinger includes an option to build a second ATB. Crowley’s marine solutions group has been contracted to provide vessel construction management services in the shipyard from final design phase through to delivery.

Once built and deployed, Crowley will operate the ATB under a long-term charter with Alaska-based Petro Star Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Arctic Slope Regional Corporation (ASRC). The charter extends Crowley’s long partnership with ASRC, which dates back four decades to ASRC’s earliest days.


“While Crowley has operated ATBs in Alaska in the past, this will be the first ATB of its size and class that will be dedicated to the Alaska market,” said Rocky Smith, Crowley Fuels' senior vice president and general manager. “The vessel’s capabilities make it ideal to serve the market with the safe and reliable service Crowley has built its reputation on. We look forward to working with our partners at Bollinger to deliver a world-class ATB to this region.”


The barge will be named Oliver Leavitt, in honor of ASRC’s former chairman and current member of the corporation’s board of directors, with the tug sporting the name Aveogan, Leavitt’s Iñupiat name.  


“We’re honored Crowley has chosen to name the barge after one of the Corporation’s early leaders,” said Rex A. Rock Sr., ASRC president and CEO. “Crowley continues to be a vital partner and we look forward to commissioning this new ATB as an integral part of our transportation network as we deliver fuels throughout Alaska.”


Jensen Maritime, Crowley’s Seattle-based naval architecture and marine engineering subsidiary, designed the 483-foot ATB to meet Ice Class and Polar Code requirements including increased structural framing and shell plating and extended zero discharge endurance. It also features a ship-shape bow to enhance its ability to maneuver in icy conditions. 


Other design innovations include a barge form factor to achieve high-cargo capacity on minimal draft. 


The tug has Azimuthing drives to enhance maneuverability, and an Intercon C-series coupling system with a first-of-its-kind lightering helmet and barge ladder wave design. The tug is equipped with fire monitors and foam proportioner, providing off-ship firefighting capabilities to the barge.


The tug’s main GE engines, as well as the barge engines, meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Tier IV environmental standards for emissions-reducing performance requirements.


The barge features a ballast water treatment system, also meeting the latest requirements. The ATB tug is fitted with a patent-pending closed-loop ballast system, whereby the tug’s freshwater ballast is transferred to a retention tank on the barge. There is no ballast water treatment system on the tug, eliminating any overboard discharge of ballast from the tug.


The barge features deep-well pumps in each cargo tank, as well as all-electric deck machinery to reduce the risk of hydraulic spills. The barge is also outfitted with spill response gear and two hydraulic boom reels with inflatable booms to support spill response efforts.


The ATB was designed under the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention and it will be classed with the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS). The vessel will be built with enhanced features to benefit the crew, including 45-degree sloped staircases, interior sound deadening and staterooms with bathrooms.


Crowley operates and manages the largest U.S.-flag petroleum and chemical tank vessel fleet in the country, including 37 Jones Act qualified large petroleum transportation vessels with a combined capacity of more than 10 million barrels. 


Additionally, the company is a leader in the Alaska fuel industry, providing transportation, distribution and sales of petroleum products to more than 280 communities across Alaska.  Since 2011, Crowley Fuels has made substantial investments in new equipment – including highway tractors, local delivery trucks and tank trailers – that have helped to achieve higher dependability, productivity and safety – key factors for the company being awarded the “Alaska Safe Truck Fleet of the Year” four out of the last five years. Additionally, Crowley’s fleet of double-hulled marine vessels sets the standard for safety and environmental stewardship in Alaska. 

Posted by 뜨락 뜨락(Countrylife4u)

Near-stoichiometric burner adjustment saves energy costs


Near-stoichiometric burner adjustment saves energy costs and reduces metal oxidation.

An optimum air-to-fuel ratio means optimum results: this is true for all combustion processes. It’s also the reason why, as of today, StrikoWestofen is offering foundry customers the option of near-stoichiometric burner adjustment. The setting has to be made only once, when the “StrikoMelter” melting furnace is commissioned, and will then ensure the correct ratio of air and fuel at all times. This not only minimizes energy consumption, it also reduces metal oxidation. As a result, the investment quickly pays for itself.


In everyday foundry operations, excess air is often the culprit behind increased energy use of melting furnaces. “If you don’t keep an eye on air-fuel ratios, you are literally burning money,” says Rudolf Hillen, burner expert at StrikoWestofen. That’s why they now offer an economical method of near-stoichiometric burner adjustment.


At a combustion air ratio (λ) of 1, the oxygen in the air reacts completely with the fuel gas. While gas flow is easily measured via a meter, measuring the amount of air requires more complex equipment and can cause a steady loss of pressure in the combustion air system.


“This is why we are now offering our customers a solution for which we only have to measure air flow once, during the commissioning of the furnace,” Rudolf Hillen explains. “To do this, we install a measuring section in front of the combustion air fan. The pressure drop at the standardised metering orifice is an exact measure of the air flow.” With the help of special software, the air vent of the burner can then be positioned precisely to produce an optimum combustion air ratio λ of near 1.


The thus minimised excess air in the combustion process also reduces oxidation during the melting process in the furnace. Suitably adjusted burners ensure a high flame temperature and optimum heat transfer to the metal to be melted, saving energy and costs.


“We are talking about approximately seven kilowatt hours less energy per tonne of metal, i.e. annual savings of around 2.500 euros. In other words, at a melting rate of two tons per hour, the additional one-off investment pays for itself within two years,” Hillen adds.


From 2018, near-stoichiometric burner adjustment will be included in the scope of delivery for the standard version of StrikoMelter models PurEfficiency and BigStruc. It is available as an option for all other StrikoMelters.

Posted by 뜨락 뜨락(Countrylife4u)

Jensen’s Proven Workboat Design Selected for NAVSEA New-Build


Jensen Maritime Consultants, a Crowley company, announced today that one of its proven workboat designs will be used by a Pacific Northwest boat builder to fulfill a construction project for the Naval Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA). In support of the project, Jensen will supply a functional and regulatory design package for the 41-foot vessel, which will provide ship- and sub-assist services, as well as other port operational services at U.S. Navy port locations around the world.

“We are proud to have our highly functional, safe and efficient design selected for this new series of workboats,” said Jensen’s Bryan Nichols, director, business development. “We have worked closely with the build team to ensure maximum efficiency for vessel construction. Once completed, it will be a well-equipped, very maneuverable workhorse.”


The U.S. Navy will use the 22,000-pound bollard-pull workboat in locations around the world to primarily assist barges, submarines, and other naval vessels; open and close security barriers; and tow or push floating port operations support equipment. To support these missions, Jensen designed the vessel to include two Pullmaster hydraulic deck winches for use in multiple mooring configurations and heavy-duty fendering to offer optimal protection when performing such work. The push knees are also radiused toward the top for use when pushing against vessels with flare.


Unique to the workboat, which has a beam of 16 feet, 7 inches, is a removable cabin and push knees, which allow it to be transported over-the-road by truck. The propulsion system consists of ZF W325 marine gears and inboard diesel engines, Twin Cummins QSM11-455, which offer 450 BHP at 2,100 RPM.


Additionally, Jensen added highly functional features to the design, such as an H-bitt on the bow, mooring bitts at the shoulders and stern quarters, and an aft taffrail for a smooth sweep of the tow hawser while towing astern. The workboat also has a 500-pound capacity lifting davit that can be mounted in three different locations on the stern, kort nozzles and flanking rudders to improve steering when operating in reverse, and skegs for directional stability while underway and structural support to facilitate drydockings and transport.


Finally, the workboat offers a complete HVAC system and a 3,100-pound total payload, including up to five crewmembers, additional mission gear and cargo, and a six-person life raft. The boat has been designed to American Boat and Yacht Council (ABYC) standards and meets the U.S. Navy’s stability requirements, including damage stability. Delivery is expected in fall of 2018.

Posted by 뜨락 뜨락(Countrylife4u)

New Baltic Exchange LNG Panellists Group



Following an approach by leading Baltic Exchange LNG shipbroking companies, the Baltic Exchange has formed the Baltic LNG Panellists Group. The move comes as the Baltic Exchange looks to develop a new Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) Index comprising several routes for the evolving LNG shipping market. 


Affinity, Braemar ACM, Clarksons and SSY are the LNG Panellists Group's first members and they are currently assessing a range of LNG routes before reporting moves to a trial phase. 


Commenting on the formation of the new group, Baltic Exchange Chief Executive Mark Jackson said:

"The growth in LNG transported by sea has led to the formation of a spot market. However, any spot market needs to be underpinned by standard contractual terms - as already happens in the tanker and dry bulk freight markets. The Baltic Exchange is looking to support the LNG freight market as it matures and we hope to deliver greater transparency through an index. We are delighted that four of the most important independent LNG shipbroking companies have joined our panel and we look forward to developing a set of standardised assessments for use across the fast-growing LNG industry."


In recent years the substantial global increase in natural gas production and rising imports by India, China, Pakistan and Egypt has led to a fundamental change in LNG shipping market dynamics.  In addition, more contracts are being signed for shorter durations and smaller quantities, without fixed destinations. Trade patterns have diversified as new import and export terminals have been built and the LNG fleet continues to expand.  Until recently, the LNG shipping market was characterised by low levels of spot market activity, with the majority of business conducted on a long term contractual basis.   


Various routes are currently being evaluated by the Baltic LNG Panellists Group. Once finalised their proposal will be presented to the Baltic Index Council for approval and trial phase. 


Posted by 뜨락 뜨락(Countrylife4u)

RIMS go from strength to strength receiving class approval from Lloyd’s Register 

 

Drone and robotics specialist RIMS (Robotics In Maintenance Strategies) have received their fourth Classification Certificate as Recognized External Specialists, from Lloyd’s Register for the use of Remote Inspection Techniques (drones) during surveys of enclosed spaces. The Lloyd’s certification adds to RIMS’ CV of class approvals achieved during 2017.

 

The practical audit was successfully executed on a large deep-water construction vessel. Prior to the demonstration, drawings of the tanks were reviewed to establish a flight plan and to indicate specific points of interest. During the demonstration the drone was able to be successfully manoeuvred around the tank according to the flight plan, and was able to react to the instructions of the attending surveyor in real time.

 

David Knukkel, CEO of RIMS commented on the recent certification awarded to RIMS: “We are honoured to receive the approval, as these audits are not easy. Class are setting a high standard, not only to ensure safe operations during the flight of the drones but more importantly to achieve accurate survey results. Due to the importance of these surveys, we consider each flight as an examination and it is up to us to maintain the high standard demonstrated in class audits.”

 

The certification means that shipowners and managers now have the option to avoid the use of costly access equipment such as scaffolding and cherry pickers during surveys, and instead to use RIMS’ remote live on-screen object inspection, which offers substantial benefits; reduction in the time to carry out a survey, minimising of risk, as well as cost savings.

 

“We were first to gain approval from BV, ABS, RINA and now also receiving the approval from Lloyds Register, means that the acceptance and use of drone technology finally breaks through in the Maritime Industry and drones become a common tool to execute safe and cost-efficient inspections of ships and MOU constructions.” added Knukkel.



Posted by 뜨락 뜨락(Countrylife4u)

PrimeServ Signs Maintenance Agreement with Arkas


Engine Management Concept (EMC) agreement set to run over 10 years with major Turkish container operator


MAN PrimeServ, MAN Diesel & Turbo’s after-sales division, has signed an EMC maintenance contract with Arkas Shipping and Transport, operator of Turkey’s largest container fleet with 50 vessels.


The new agreement is for the maintenance of the 2,586-teu container carrier, the ‘MCC Mandalay’. It covers the provision of spare parts, maintenance management and the servicing of the vessel’s MAN B&W 6G60ME main engine, in collaboration with Arkas’ on-board crew.


According to the terms of the contract, MAN Diesel & Turbo, Copenhagen will deliver maintenance management and spare parts, while other MAN PrimeServ hubs will take care of the service provision for the engines.


Ali Ibrahim Kontaytekin, General Manager of Arkas Fleet, and Jens Seeberg, Head of Retrofit – Upgrade & Engine Management – PrimeServ Copenhagen, praised the cooperation between Arkas Shipping and MAN PrimeServ and stated that they view the agreement as a step towards an even closer collaboration between the two companies in the future.

The EMC is a tailor-made service model that is customised to suit individual customer’s requirements. Operating on a fixed budget, MAN PrimeServ takes care of equipment, planned and unplanned maintenance, the dispatching of personnel, and the provision of spare parts – a natural task for the engine designer.

MAN Diesel & Turbo reports the adoption of EMC by the shipping industry as a paradigm change within maintenance as, traditionally, shipowners have taken care of maintenance themselves in what is generally a conservative industry.

The close cooperation between MAN PrimeServ’s global network means that it can pool common resources and exchange knowledge, and is able to offer customers a considerably higher level of service worldwide.

Posted by 뜨락 뜨락(Countrylife4u)


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